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  • Term
    Definition
  • The US sports electronics manufacturer and wearable electronics specialist 4iiii has already caused a sensation with the 4iiii Precision Powermeter, which is to be offered in the American market for 399 USD, when it was presented at the(...)
  • Aero chainrings is an abbreviation for aerodynamic chainrings. Aerodynamics is one of the most important elements in cycling, as it can win or lose races. Aerodynamics thus refers to the resistance of an athlete and sports equipment in the(...)
  • Definition of aerobic-anaerobic transition zone The aerobic threshold is 2 mmol/l and represents the limit of purely aerobic energy supply. Beyond this aerobic threshold, lactate enters the blood and accumulates. This area is also referred to(...)
  • The gross criterion for aerobic capacity is the maximum oxygen uptake. In addition to the skeletal muscles, the cardiopulmonary system is particularly stressed during endurance exercise. This is the coordinated interaction of the respiratory(...)
  • The capacity of general aerobic endurance is given by the maximum oxygen uptake capacity per minute. In connection with the basic motor skills of strength and speed, we speak of strength and speed endurance.
  • Aerobic metabolism breaks down glycogen or glucose and fats. He needs oxygen for that. The resulting end products are carbon dioxide and water. Energy is provided by aerobic metabolism when less energy is required per unit time.The maximum(...)
  • The aerobic threshold is 2 mmol/l blood lactate and represents the limit of purely aerobic energy supply. Beyond this aerobic threshold, lactate enters the blood and accumulates. As long as the load intensity of a muscle activity lies in the(...)
  • Aerocrank is short for aerodynamic crank. In sports, aerodynamics refers to the behaviour of the athlete or the sports equipment in the wind. This resulting air resistance in the airstream counteracts the movement of the athlete. Since the air(...)
  • High altitude training usually takes place at 1700 - 3200 m above sea level. Altitude training is intended to train the oxygen uptake capacity. For this purpose, altitude training makes use of the oxygen partial pressure, which decreases with(...)
  • Anaerobic-alactacid energy production is a form of anaerobic metabolism. In this form, the breakdown of the energy-rich phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (KrP) occurs without the involvement of oxygen and without(...)
  • Anaerobic capacity describes different parts of alactacid and lactate energy production, buffer capacity and acid tolerance. Anaerobic capacity is particularly important in short term endurance. The increase of the anaerobic capacity is(...)
  • Anaerobic endurance refers to the ability to maintain a high level of performance despite a large oxygen debt. Anaerobic endurance can be trained for both static and dynamic work.Endurance in conjunction with the basic motor skills of strength(...)
  • Anaerobic-lactacid energy production is a form of anaerobic metabolism. This is anaerobic glycolysis, i.e. the breakdown of glycogen without oxygen with the formation of lactic acid. During maximal exercise, anaerobic-lactacid energy supply is(...)
  • In contrast to aerobic metabolism, anaerobic metabolism takes place without the participation of oxygen. Energy is provided by anaerobic metabolism, of which there are two types: anaerobic-alactacidic energy provision and anaerobic-lactacidic(...)
  • The anaerobic threshold is a measured value of 4 mmol/l blood lactate. It is the boundary of the aerobic-anaerobic transition zone. The energy supply is increasingly glycolytic. If the intensity is now further increased, the blood lactate(...)
  • ANT+ is a modern network system and the most widely used data transmission protocol in the field of training data in sports. ANT+ is now largely replacing the older ANT data network. Both are proprietary radio network standards for the 2.4 GHz(...)
  • The axle standard describes the diameter and the installation width of the bottom bracket axle or crankshaft on the bicycle. It is differentiated whether the axle has a continuous diameter of 24 mm, as with the Hollowtech II variant of the(...)
  • Basic endurance is the ability to perform any load, which covers many muscle groups and which is optimally related to a specific performance, over a long period of time (cf. Nabatnikova 1974, Martin 1977). A distinction is made between basic(...)
  • The basic endurance training serves to stabilize and further develop the basic endurance. Aerobic capacity is improved by this training. This means that if the aerobic metabolic conditions remain the same, the performance in the aerobic range(...)
  • The BB30 bottom bracket is characterized by the fact that two bearings are pressed directly into the frame without a bearing shell. Two snap rings hold the bearings in position. The bottom bracket shell has a diameter of 42 mm and accommodates(...)
  • The BB386 EVO bottom bracket is a further development of the already long existing BB30 system. The company FSA (Full Speed Ahead) developed it further and changed individual parts, so that a new crank system came to light. In the new name(...)
  • BCD is the English term for bolt circle diameter. BCD is an abbreviation for Bolt Circle Diameter and describes a fixed measure of the distance between the holes in the chainring. The given value describes the diameter of the circle on which(...)
  • A bicycle power meter is now better known as a powermeter. However, the name power meter pretty much describes the function of such a power meter. A power meter measures the power on a bicycle. To be more precise, the powermeter measures the(...)
  • Cycle ergometry is a procedure for determining physical fitness. The step test is a common performance diagnostic tool for bicycle ergometry. The athlete sits in a laboratory on an ergometer. It starts with a low output power (e.g. 100 watts)(...)
  • Bikepacking is the fusion of biking and minimalist camping. The idea is to ride mixed terrain and explore places, carrying only the necessary equipment and food. With the emphasis on freedom of travel and efficiency, the lightest possible(...)
  • Blood sugar is provided by the glycogen balance. Liver glycogen is responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels. Blood sugar primarily ensures the functioning of the central nervous system. The central nervous system is dependent on a(...)
  • BMI is the body mass index (also known as body mass index (BMI), body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet-Kaup index). The measure is used to evaluate body weight in relation to height. The "desirable" value of the Body Mass Index, BMI, depends on(...)
  • Bottom Bracket (BB) is the English term for inner bearing. Inner bearings, also called bottom brackets, are the bearings in the bicycle frame in which the crank or the bottom bracket shaft is mounted. Bottom bracket designs are e.g. PressFit30,(...)
  • A bicycle navigation device with Breadcrump GPS Navigation shows the route using waypoints saved in advance, and not using a map as is the case with ordinary car navigation systems. Thanks to numerous computer applications, devices with(...)
  • BSA or BC 1.37 is the name of the English bottom bracket standard which is screwed into the bottom bracket shell. In contrast to the European system, the measurements are given here in inches. Originally, the BSA thread was developed for(...)
  • Carbohydrates are one of three sources of energy in the diet, along with protein and fat. They belong to the indispensable nutrients. A person takes in carbohydrates with the usual food. Especially in bread, sugar, jam, honey, pasta,(...)
  • A ceramic inner bearing is a rolling bearing in which rolling elements made of ceramic between an outer ring and an inner ring reduce frictional resistance. A rolling bearing is used to ensure that a rotary movement about an axis can be carried(...)
  • The chainring pin is a small elongated cylinder that is mounted in the chainring. The chainring is mounted with the pin at the height of the crank arm so that the chain cannot slip between the crank arm and the chainring when shifting over.(...)
  • The chainline is the line along which the chain runs between the front chainrings and the sprockets mounted on the rear axle. The chainline runs parallel to the frame, across the middle chainring and the middle sprocket. If there is only an(...)
  • Cholesterol is partly absorbed through food and partly formed in the body's own metabolism.Cholesterol is essential for life. It is the precursor of vitamin D3, serves as a membrane building block for the cells (HDL: high density lipoprotein).(...)
  • In the case of clincher tyres, these are the standard bicycle tyres. These so-called clincher tyres consist of a rubber casing which, together with the rim, encloses the bicycle tube. To prevent the clincher tire and rim from being forced apart(...)
  • Compact chainrings are chainrings that differ from chainrings with the standard bolt circle ( BCD ) on the basis of the bolt circle. However, the chainrings can have the same diameter and the same number of teeth. Only the bolt circle includes(...)
  • The compact hole circle is a circle on which all the holes punched in the chainring lie. The compact circuit, just like the standard bolt circle, dictates that all holes are exactly the same size and exactly the same distance apart. The compact(...)
  • Competitive sports are defined as competition-oriented and focused training with the goal of athletic success. The difference to the popular sport is a much higher expenditure of time due to mostly daily training. Competitive sport is often(...)
  • Definition The Conconi test is a bloodless (without lactate value determination from the blood) determination of the anaerobic threshold via the heart rate change. The result of the test is used to assess the aerobic capacity and to control(...)
  • The endurance method aims to improve aerobic capacity by exercising for more than 6 minutes without rest. The endurance method is a training component in all sports of appropriate duration (e.g. cycling over 4000 m, long-distance running,(...)
  • Definition The Cooper test is a simple method for determining endurance capacity. Based on comparative measurements by Cooper and other scientists between the 12-minute running performance and the treadmill tests with determination of the(...)
  • Definition creatine kinase Creatine kinase (CK) is an enyzm. It is found in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and smooth muscle with their three isoenzymes CK-MM (muscle type), CK-MB (heart type) and CK-BB (brain type). The determination of CK(...)
  • Creatine phosphate storage is a type of energy storage.
  • In cycling, Critical Power (CP) is the power that an athlete can deliver over a defined period of time. Frequently used are e.g. the following areas: CP1 - Maximum power over 1 minute CP5 - Maximum power over 5 minutes CP20 - Maximum power(...)
  • Cycling is a collective term for sports and competitions that are carried out on a bicycle. The origins of cycling Cycling has a long tradition. Races and other events have been held since the mid-19th century. In the beginning, the bicycle(...)
  • The human eye adapts quickly to differences in brightness. By constricting or dilating the pupils with the iris muscles (pupillary light reflex), the amount of incident light is regulated. Dark adaptation is primarily based on the fact that(...)
  • Protein, as well as carbohydrates and fats, belong to the group of indispensable nutrients. They are the basic building blocks of cells and replace used structures. Proteins differ in the composition of their amino acids. In the organism, a(...)
  • Definition electrolytes Electrolytes are minerals that are dissolved as salts in anions and cations. They are inorganic substances that are neither produced nor consumed in the body. However, losses of electrolytes through sweat, stool and(...)
  • Endurance is the ability of the organism to continuously release energy for the realization of movement performance under continuous, relatively intensive stress. Endurance is also called fatigue resistance. Endurance depends in particular on(...)
  • Energy consumption increases during physical exertion. The carriers of this energy are the energy-providing substrates and the energy stores. The quantitative and qualitative energy consumption depends on the load intensity. Exertions of less(...)
  • Energy-providing substrates are located in the energy store. The muscle cell has various energy-providing substrates from which it can obtain energy for muscle work. The mass of energy-rich phosphates are stored in the muscle: Adenosine(...)
  • Various energy-providing substrates form the energy store. The energy stores are located in the muscle cell, from which it can obtain energy for muscle work. The mass of energy-rich phosphates are stored in the muscle: Adenosine triphosphate(...)
  • Energy supply is the release of energy that the body needs for the individual processes. It is released by oxidation of the energy-providing substrates or nutrients. These are mainly glucose (dextrose) and fatty acids or their storage forms(...)
  • Along with carbohydrates and proteins (protein), fats belong to the group of indispensable nutrients. They serve as the building material of body cells. Fats are also suppliers of vital free fatty acids (FSS) and carriers of fat-soluble(...)
  • The FIT file is a second file format of the company Garmin and is relatively new on the market. Therefore FIT files are not yet supported by many other software systems except the systems of the own manufacturer Garmin. Because of this, FIT(...)
  • The term FTP (Functional Threshold Power) was defined by Hunter Allen and Dr. Andrew Coggan (Training an Racing with a Powermeter). It is the highest power that can be sustained continuously for a period of one hour. While performance above(...)
  • Garmin Connect is software for evaluating and analysing your activity data. The software is available as an app for IOS and Andoid smartphones as well as via web access. As the name Garmin Connect implies, the software connects all activities(...)
  • The Garmin Vector power meters are pedal power meters from the Garmin company. They are comparable in terms of measurement technology with the models Favero Assioma UNO and Favero Assioma DUO from the company Favero Electronics and the Powertap(...)
  • Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in glycogen stores. Glucose belongs to the carbohydrates, which are the most important and most widespread organic substances on earth. They are built up by plants and microorganisms from carbon dioxide(...)
  • Glycogen stores in humans are normally in the range of 300 to 400g of glycogen. One third of this is stored in liver glycogen and two thirds as muscle glycogen. With appropriate training and targeted nutrition, glycogen stores can be more than(...)
  • Glycolysis is the oxidation of glycogen, a distinction is made between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. The energy supply pathway of anaerobic oxidation occurs when the current energy demand cannot be met by aerobic oxidation. The capacity of(...)
  • GPS is described in German as Global Positioning System and deals with the determination of the position of persons and devices. The GPS system was developed by the US Department of Defense in 1970 and has been fully operational since 1990. For(...)
  • Since there is no standard data format for the storage and exchange of GPS data, the GPX file was developed by the company Topografie. As with most other data formats, the XML schema is used, which describes the elements and the structure of(...)
  • A gravel bike belongs to a modern class of off-road bikes. Various bicycle manufacturers have already established the marketing term gravel bike from 2015. A gravel bike used to be called a cross-country bike, cyclocross, crossroad or(...)
  • Health training, or health sport, is regular, individual, physical exercise with the aim of promoting, maintaining or restoring health. Health training includes preventive components, also called preventive sport, movement and sports therapy(...)
  • Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per minute. It can be detected manually, by palpating the pulse at the wrist or carotid artery. A heart rate monitor is beneficial for monitoring heart rate during exercise. This shows the current heart(...)
  • Hormones have an effect on athletic performance through their hormonal control in the organism. Hormones protect the energy stores from absolute and thus life-threatening depletion. However, regular exercise also has a retroactive effect on(...)
  • The hub forms the centre of each wheel and rotates around the fixed axle. A bicycle hub consists of a bearing and a hub shell. The bearing ensures that the wheel rotates around the axle with as little resistance as possible, whereas the hub(...)
  • Hypalon is a chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM). The elastomer is extremely resistant, tear-resistant, UV-resistant, temperature-resistant and ageing-resistant. Hypalon can be used in many ways as a waterproof covering for inflatable boats,(...)
  • Over-acidification of the muscles occurs when there is an excess of lactic acid. This is produced during anaerobic-lactacid metabolism. Symptoms of hyperacidity include headaches, fatigue, muscle cramps and aches. A drop in performance can also(...)
  • An inner bearing is a steel or ceramic ball bearing built into the bicycle frame, which means that the crank can rotate easily and with as little resistance as possible. The crank is attached to the bottom bracket shaft which runs through the(...)
  • The term bottom bracket standard refers to two different ways a bottom bracket can be mounted in a bicycle. For this purpose, a decision is made between a screwed and a pressed variant. The bottom brackets must always be adapted to the bottom(...)
  • In endurance sports, intensity control via heart rate is a good option. Training heart rates are most effectively determined using heart rate monitors. Thus, training in the selected training areas is very effective. In cycling there is also(...)
  • The interval method is a training method characterized by the systematic alternation of load and incomplete recovery breaks (rewarding rest). The intervals are not intended for complete recovery. The new load must start when a pulse rate of(...)
  • Along with zinc, iodine, fluorine and selenium, iron belongs to the group of the most important trace elements. Iron has a central role in the hemoglobin molecule. The synthesis of blood pigment depends directly on the available amount of(...)
  • ITA is the European or Italian bottom bracket standard that screws into the bottom bracket shell. ITA bottom brackets with 36mm x 24 TPI threads (M36) are mainly used by Italian bicycle manufacturers. The housing width for an ITA bearing is 70(...)
  • A laboratory test is usually used in cycling and running specific to the sport. This can be done on the bicycle ergometer or on the treadmill. Oxygen uptake (spiroergometry) and/or lactate values are measured to create a lactate performance(...)
  • Lactate, the salt of lactic acid, is formed as a degradation product in anaerobic lactic metabolism. Lactate travels via the bloodstream to the liver, heart, kidneys and less stressed muscles to be broken down there. The lactate value in(...)
  • The lactate balance is also called lactate steady-state. In the aerobic-anaerobic transition zone, lactate formation and lactate degradation are balanced. As far as the present intensity is not increased. In this case there is a lactate(...)
  • The lactate performance curve is usually displayed as part of a performance diagnostic. This lactate performance curve is a graphical representation of the progression of lactate development with increasing load. The aerobic threshold, the(...)
  • Lactate thresholds are important for controlling endurance exercise. Accurate knowledge of the transition from primarily aerobic to increasingly anaerobic energy provision has proven to be important. For this purpose, lactate thresholds and(...)
  • "Exertion intensity is the strength of the single exertional stimulus or the power as work in the unit of time. It is recorded in the endurance field by locomotion speed, heart rate per minute or by blood lactate values." (Definition according(...)
  • The classification of endurance into short, medium and long term endurance is made from the point of view of the concrete competition requirements and thus according to the duration of the competition. Long-term endurance is further subdivided(...)
  • The maximum heart rate (HRmax) can be determined by calculation or by a field test.For cycling and swimming, the standard formula applies: For women: 226 - AgeFor men: 220 - Age Please note that the formulas can only be a preliminary tool to(...)
  • OmniCal is a power meter feature developed by Quarq. OmniCal is the ability to swap Powermeter chainrings and change chainring sizes without having to recalibrate the Powermeter.
  • Performance diagnostics in cycling includes examination and test procedures that provide information about the current state of health, the resilience and the performance level of an athlete. On the one hand, performance diagnostics provides(...)
  • Potassium, along with magnesium and calcium, is one of the important minerals, also called electrolytes. Long-lasting endurance loads during training cause electrolyte losses. First and foremost, these are deficiencies of potassium, magnesium(...)
  • Power Balance is a function to show the athlete a distinction between the power output of the left and the right leg. This is referred to as the right-left distribution of its performed power. The Power Balance function can be used to optimize(...)
  • The power measurement on the road bike is one of the central points of the ambitious cycling. So-called power meters such as the Garmin Vector 3 or the Favero Assioma are used for this purpose. For a meaningful power measurement, the wattage(...)
  • Power meters for bicycles have been manufactured since the 1980s. They support the cyclist in his training by providing up-to-date information on his performance, which is then displayed on the bike computer. The power measurement on the bike(...)
  • A road bike power meter serves the cyclist to measure and record his own performance. This in turn is important for training planning and control. However, power measurement by a powermeter is also a big factor in competition and has been used(...)
  • Road bike power meters are a widely used method of training control in cycling. They measure the performance during training and competition directly on the bike, making the effort of the athlete measurable and comparable. The use of road bike(...)
  • Power profiling in cycling is a system for recording various maximum powers. It is important for power profiling that there are also meaningful maximum values from all load ranges. Power profiling then combines the individual performance(...)
  • The human organism has power reserves depending on its training condition. Through the principle of training adaptation, these performance reserves can be expanded and increased. Different performance areas can be defined (according to de(...)
  • Power2Max power meters are Made in Germany. The idea and the goal to develop a simple, reliable and at the same time precise power meter and to offer it at a fair price came to the technology-enthusiastic founders in 2006. In the following(...)
  • The power term market Nowadays, power meters are an almost indispensable part of performance-controlled training. Beside the oldest manufacturer Schoberer Radmesstechnik, which produces the SRM Powermeter in Jülich since 1986, there are(...)
  • The PressFit 30 bottom bracket or PF30 is also a commonly used bottom bracket. The PressFit 30 bottom bracket differs from the BB30 in that it has a larger housing diameter of 46mm. The PressFit 30 bottom bracket does not differ in diameter(...)
  • The PressFit BB86 bottom bracket belongs to a group of bottom brackets with the same 41 mm outer housing diameter, but different housing widths. As the name suggests, this is an inner bearing that is pressed into the frame. However, the(...)
  • The PressFit BB90 is a ball bearing which was originally planned for use with the Shimano Hollowtech 2 cranks. Unlike other PressFit systems, the Pressfit BB90 is not surrounded by a protective shell, but is pressed directly into the bottom(...)
  • The PressFit BB 92 bottom bracket belongs to the same bottom bracket assembly as the PressFit BB 89.5 or the PressFit BB86 bottom bracket. These bearings are enclosed by a shell made from aluminium or glass fibre reinforced polyamide. This(...)
  • A road bike wattmeter is also known as a power meter and, as the name suggests, measures a cyclist's wattage. The wattage is calculated based on various factors and then transferred to an appropriate bike computer or fitness watch. For this(...)
  • With the road bike watt measurement began the power measurement in cycling. In the meantime, in addition to road bike watt measurement, there are also power meters for MTB, cyclecross or triathlon applications. The first power meter(...)
  • The classification of endurance into short term endurance as well as medium and long term endurance is made from the point of view of the concrete competition requirements and thus according to the duration of the competition. Load duration :(...)
  • The American company Stages Cycling has been developing power meters since 2010. Since 2014, the Stages Power Meters have also been available in Europe. The Stages Power products are very popular among cyclists because they offer a wide range(...)
  • These extremely light Stages Powermeter MTB were developed especially for mountain bikes. They because of only a few grams more than conventional cranks. Because they are single-sided power meters, installation is very simple. You only have to(...)
  • The standard hole circle (BCD) is a circle on which all holes punched in the chainring lie. The standard hole circle dictates that all holes are exactly the same size and exactly the same distance apart. The standard hole circle has a diameter(...)
  • A steel inner bearing is a rolling bearing. Rolling elements made of steel roll between an outer ring and an inner ring to reduce frictional resistance. These rolling bearings are used, for example, in bicycle frames. This assembly allows an(...)
  • Strain gauges are elongated sensors that contain an electrical resistance. As soon as these strips detect the slightest deformation of the material, they change their resistance.  Strain gauges consist of a thin plastic carrier on which the(...)
  • Strava is a company from the USA which exists since 2009 and records and stores tracking data of different sports like running, swimming, skiing, rowing or cycling. Strava's system is comparable to Garmin Connect software from Garmin. The data(...)
  • In training theory, strength endurance is defined as the ability to withstand fatigue during loads with significant force requirements. Power endurance is particularly important in cycling, as this ability comes to the fore especially when(...)
  • Supramaximal is the term used to describe a load intensity that is still above the maximum intensity that can be achieved personally. OR : Supramaximal is an increase from maximal and is still above the largest possible capacity.
  • The sweet spot was defined by Hunter Allen and Dr. Andrew Coggan and describes a small range between 88 and 94% of FTP. This puts it pretty much at the end of the G2 range and the beginning of the EB range, but it does not officially represent(...)
  • A TCX file is a file format of the company Garmin. The file format is designed for the data exchange of GPS and fitness data between the various products of the company Garmin. Because of the name TCX file Garmin also uses the abbreviation .tcx(...)
  • Training adaptation, is the "functional and morphological change of organ systems in response to effective loading stimuli. It occurs gradually." (Neumann/ Schüler, 1989). The process of training adaptation is volitional, taking 4-6 weeks to(...)
  • Triathlon is an endurance sport that demands a lot from athletes. At the heart of the triathlon scene, in addition to the disciplines of running and swimming, is cycling, which is the middle of the three disciplines to be completed. If you've(...)
  • Tubular tyres are tyres which, unlike standard clincher tyres, are not clamped into the rim but are completely closed and glued to the rim. Only in the tubular tire itself is now the actual tube, which thus withstands a much higher pressure of(...)
  • Definition urea The parameter urea is quantitatively the most important degradation product of protein metabolism. In the kidney, urea is filtered, of which 40-50% is subsequently excreted.Endurance exercise of more than 30 minutes leads to(...)
  • Wahoo is an American manufacturer of cycling computers, indoor trainers and gauges. The indoor trainers are among the best you can find on the market today. The special feature is a new advanced algorithm, which offers you a quiet, precise and(...)
  • Wattage measurement on road bikes has been around since the 80s. The pioneer was the company SRM. Uli Schoberer already developed a watt measurement for road bikes in the mid 80's and even today the SRM powermeters use almost the same basic(...)