Vitamins are vital essential substances on whose constant supply the organism depends. They are needed for vital functions, as they are biocatalysts in enzymes involved in the control and regulation of all metabolic processes. A distinction is made between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. A lack of vitamins leads to a drop in general physical performance and possibly to illness. Vitamin supplementation can eliminate the deficiency symptoms and thus restore performance. An overdosed vitamin supply does not lead to increased performance; the excess is released via the kidneys. Vitamins have an antioxidant effect, they act as protective factors against the damaging effects of free radicals.
Important vitamins are vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantohenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamin), C (ascorbic acid), D (calciferol), E (alpha- tocopherol).